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2500° F. 



THE ART AND TECHNIQUE 
OF MODERN GLASS 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 
FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

COOPER SQUARE, NEW YORK 



NOTES ON THE DEVELOPMENT 
OF MODERN GLASS 

S\Qi\ 

THE MAKING of glass is no new art. Glass has been made for 
over three thousand years by virtually the same process and 
vdth the same materials. It is a living art; as practiced today 
it combines master-craftsmanship, great facility in design and, 
usually, the production-hne techniques of the machine age. In no 
other art is the old, traditional way of working as completely com- 
bined with the new. Yet we are so surrounded by glass in all its 
forms in our everyday life, and so familiar with it, that it is viewed 
for the most part without knowledge or even curiosity. 

The history of glass has been traced many times, but in museums 
the world of modem glass has seldom been displayed. We are 
attempting to show, by exhibiting the decorative art of glass from 
many countries and the many technical uses of glass, the progress 
that has been made in our own time. 

Glass was discovered in Egypt more than three thousand years 
ago; not, as Pliny would persuade us, by traders cooking over sodiimi 
blocks from their cargo on a sandy shore, but through a long process 
of discovery that took hundreds of years. Glass was used at first as 
a vitreous glaze to coat articles of stone or clay. Gradually it was 
found that if a sand core was made and layers of the glaze built up 
thickly over it, it was possible to remove the core, leaving a hollow 
vessel of pvu-e glass. The rough core of sand was formed on a metal 
rod and shaped to the interior form of the vessel to be made; this was 
dipped into the molten glass until the necessary degree of thickness 

1 




was obtained. The glaze was made from quartz sand which had a 
high hme content, and soda, the two being fused at a low tempera- 
ture. These early attempts at manual fashioning of glass resulted in 
an opaque, highly colored ware. 

The use of the blowpipe in making glass was discovered by the 
Phoenicians just before the Christian Era, and at that time glass took 
on the quahties of transparence and clarity so highly valued today. 
Moulds had been used by potters in making clay objects and were 
now adapted to glass-blowing. The resemblance to jewels and to 
rock crystal was soon noted and glass was cut to bring out its beauty. 
The Portland Vase, with its surface cut in the cameo technique, is 
one of the best-known examples of one type of early glass-cutting. 

Due to similarity in appearance, glass was and still is often called 
crystal, a somewhat confusing term. By agreed definition, this desig- 
nation should not be applied unless the lead content is twenty-five 
to fifty per cent, of the weight of the material used in making the 
glass. 

Transparent glass was used for windows, and rough blocks of 
glass for streets, as early as the time of the Roman Empire. With 
the fall of the Western Empire the art of glass was almost lost, only 
a few simple, crude vessels being made. In the East, Byzantium 
continued the making of glass, for a while quite Roman in character, 
but later developed a style embodying a use of gilding and enamels 
that was entirely diflFerent. The Syrians and Iranians also produced 
some excellent colored glass, and some of their work reached West- 
em Europe through Spain and the Italian ports. 

The art of glass-making gradually revived in Venice, under the 
influence of imports from the East, and for many centuries Venice 
was the leading centre of the glass industry in Europe. Such im- 
portance was attached to Venetian supremacy in glass-making that 
at the end of the thirteenth century the industry was removed to 
the secure isolation of Murano, under the pretext of fear for fires 

^ JAN 1 J im 

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tliat might be caused by the glass furnaces, and the glass-blowers 
were forbidden under penalty of execution to leave the island. Even 
so, many escaped and made their way to other countries. Induced 
by huge bribes, thus spreading the art and knowledge of glass in 
Europe. By the fourteenth century the use of glass for table utensils 
was common enough to allow drinking vases to be known as "glasses" 
no matter of what they were made. 

Bohemia, in the sixteenth century, under the guidance of Rudolph 
II, eventually displaced the Venetian glass with its own ruby and 
carved glass. Bohemian glass was in turn surpassed, toward the end 
of the seventeenth century, when Irish and EngHsh glass-makers, 
led by George Ravenscroft, produced sparkling "flint glass" by add- 
ing lead oxide to the regular glass base. There came a gradual de- 
cline of interest in glass as an art through the following century and 
for over a long period of time work and designs were continued in 
the old famihar patterns that each country had developed. 

One of the first industries in America was glass-blowing, which 
developed as it was found that the Indians would accept glass beads 
as a medium of exchange. A crude factory was set up at Jamestown 
in 1609 and glass-blowers were brought over from Europe. The 
market was soon glutted, beads lost all value and the factory was 
abandoned. Until the late eighteenth century, when Stiegel started 
his factory in Pennsylvania, American glass was so influenced by 
Europe that it had not developed any style of its own. Stiegel glass, 
while foreign in inspiration, had a distinctly American simplicity. 

With the invention of the glass-pressing machine in Sandwich, 
Massachusetts, in 1827, the American technical contribution of mass- 
production methods was for the first time applied to the making of 
glass. Later in the century, in the 1880's, this country was turning 
out some of the best of the cut glass that was popular at that time. 
At the same period, Louis Tiffany became so interested in the strange 
iridescent quality of early Roman glass that he began experimenting 

3 



in his own glass factory and developed, in his "favrile" glass, a 
variety of colors overcast with a characteristic opalescence or irides- 
cence that appealed to the taste of his day. 

Glass as a medium for artistic expression was stirred to new life 
toward the end of the nineteenth century by Emile Galle in France, 
and was developed and carried forward by many other talented 
French artists. Rene Lalique turned from the creation of jewehy 
to glass-making, using his knowledge as a sculptor and his inter- 
est in nature to explore the possibilities of decorative glass. Henri 
Navarre specialized in the beauty of polished surfaces with great 
depth in his underlying layer of glass. He thought of glass as a 
molten metal to be captured with all its light and color intact, and 
achieved a form of case glass to obtain this effect. Case glass is 
made by covering a layer of colored glass with a coating of clear 
glass, or vice versa; its qualities are frequently enhanced through 
cutting the outer coating in various designs to let the inner glass 
be seen. 

Pate de verre, a substance half-way between fired clay and trans- 
lucent glass, has been developed by Albert Dammouse and Henri 
Cros; and Frangois Decorchemont has taken advantage of its great 
density and lustrous depths to bring it into almost jade-like quality. 
Jean Sala was another of the authentic glass blower-designers, that 
is, a man who carried out his ideas in the actual blowing, often 
adding to his design as he blew, giving the glass a spontaneous 
freshness that the ancient blowers gave to their work. 

Maurice Marinot may well be considered the master and the 
greatest genius of glass in our time. His first work was of transparent 
glass decorated with enamel. As he studied further the potentialities 
and very components of glass, he found it necessary to learn how 
to blow glass himself, and worked with crude, heavy masses of the 
material, embellishing the bubbles and imperfections until they be- 
came an integral part of the design. Later he used acid, not for 
4 



delicate etching but to eat out deep, bold designs enhancing his 
massive forms. 

In Sweden and in Austria at about this time there came a re- 
vival of the clear, pure lead glass, beautifully engraved and etched. 
In Vienna the firm of J. and L. Lobmeyr, under the guidance of 
Josef Hoffmann, developed a clear, delicate, often attenuated ware 
that is without rival. Such artists as Ena Rothenberg and Stefan 
Rath advanced carving and engraving in decorative glass, aided by 
excellent glass-workers from Czechoslovakia. Starting at Orrefors 
in Sweden in 1915, Simon Gate and Edvard Hald made famous the 
heavy, colorless glass which they brought to a point of purity never 
before reached. Sculptural in quality, the surface is cut or engraved 
to enhance the crystal-like nature of the substance. Graal glass, a 
unique form of case glass, was developed by Orrefors, as was Ariel 
glass, another unique type. At the Kosta factory in Sweden work is 
done with the same high standards. Elis Berg and Ewald Dahlskog 
at Kosta were responsible for many new ideas which have been 
widely borrowed. A. D. Copier at the Leerdam factory in Hol- 
land worked along similar lines, and perfected the "Unica" glass, 
characterized by a clouded appearance resulting from the method 
used in annealing. 

The modern standards of glass in America have been greatly in- 
fluenced by Swedish achievements. Led by the Steuben firm that 
has done much to raise the standards of American glass in the past 
fifteen years, American glass-makers have for the most part turned 
out a clear, colorless glass, the best of which is free of imperfections 
even when produced in large quantity. Individual artists such as 
Maurice Heaton and Marianna von Allesch are continually experi- 
menting with glass, and have produced interesting innovations. Al- 
though the country is still inundated with an excessive quantity of 
unnecessarily ugly objects made of glass, the example of good lead- 
ership in the field grows steadily stronger and it becomes possible 

5 



/ 

/ 



to hope that many past mistakes will be completely outgrown. 

Glass-making and glass design and decoration are two quite 
diflferent departments in the modern glass factory. In the earlier 
history of glass the blower was also the designer, a combination of 
functions that we still find in such masters as Marinot. Often this 
led to such masterpieces as the great period in Venice gave forth, 
but too frequently it resulted in mediocrity. The mass-production 
methods of modern industry almost inevitably require that the 
blower follow a blue-print drawing produced for him by a designer. 
While this tends to stifle any natural designing talent a glass-blower 
might develop, it is a safer and more reliable way to guarantee ac- 
ceptable design in cases where production in quantity is imperative. 

To understand modem glass we must first know how it is made. 
A pure, filtered sand is mixed with soda, and lime or lead in accord- 
ance with the formula of the particular type of glass. This "batch" 
is put into a huge clay crucible or fire-pot which is slid into the 
furnace and fused at a temperature of about 2500° F. The resulting 
molten material, rather fike very thick ta£Ey with a deep red glow, 
is glass in its Hquid state. The clay pots must be constantly watched, 
as they are subject to flaking in the terrific heat and casting particles 
into the glass, which form opaque spots or "stones" in the clear 
crystal. 

The process of blowing glass from this point is in the traditional 
manner of past milleniums. Even the glass-workers' tools are im- 
changed; and some, such as the pontil or "punty" stick used to take 
glass from or to the blowpipe of the gaffer, have their early Italian 
names. The tools are of wood or steel, in simple forms, with the 
high polish that comes from constant use and care. These tools, 
like those of any other exacting craft, have to be kept in excellent 
condition as any speck of rust or dirt would mar the glass. 

Glass-workers operate in units of three to six workers supervised 
by a gaffer or head man. The gaffer rules his group with a firm hand, 



watching every move made by a member of his crew. He puts the 
final touches on any piece of glass with the deft hand and keen eye 
that come from years at the craft. There will be many of these 
groups working at one time in a room, each a separate organization 
going about its own work. 

The gatherer, or first man on the crew, gathers a mass of molten 
glass from the pot on a blowpipe and swings and roughly shapes 
the mass, cutting out imperfections, air bubbles and excess glass. 
The mass is then passed from man to man, each adding some work 
to the piece, shaping, blowing, returning the glass to smaller re- 
heating furnaces called "glory holes," to keep the glass in pliable 
form. The glass must be constantly moved, twirled, blown and 
shaped as the molten form can qiiickly get out of hand. When the 
gaffer has finished and approved, the glass piece is taken to a lehr, 
or oven, where an annealing or slow coofing process requires five 
to eight hours. When the glass has cooled off sufficiently it is in- 
spected and if further decoration is required, it goes to the cutter, 
the etcher or the engraver who, working with dozens of small cop- 
per wheels, slowly and carefully cuts out the desired design. 

To see a modern factory, equipped with the latest technical 
devices and machinery, and, in the midst of all this, a great room 
where glass-workers are making modem decorative glass in this 
timeless fashion is quite a startfing experience. One feels transported 
to another age. The mammoth furnaces with their bubbling con- 
tents, the smaller glory holes with fires flaring out from all sides; 
men casually walking to and fro, twirling and shifting masses of 
red-hot glass, yet making progress with every movement, each act- 
ing his own role while contributing to the work of the team, and 
all ruled by the white-shirted, often white-haired gaffer: it is a scene 
that could be painted with justice by Pieter Brueghel. It is a rare 
thing to see men working with such a feeling for their craft in this 
machine age. 



In the twentieth-century glass factory where anything from 
bottles to railroad lanterns may be made, the process is the same as 
is used for hand-blown pieces. The machines duplicate every action 
of the glass-blower in simphfied version for simpler shapes. While 
moulds are used to form the glass, the glass has to be blown into 
the moulds, twirled, reheated and blown again, each operation re- 
quiring a diflFerent mechanical movement. 

For color in glass, mineral compounds are added to the raw 
materials before fusing. Various compounds of copper make blues, 
greens and some reds. Manganese added will result in black and 
piH"ple. Iron in different amounts makes yellow and all the colors 
previously mentioned. Tin makes opaque white; cobalt results in 
dark blue, and gold will produce reds, violet, yellow and browTi. 
Here again the compounds are formulas worked out a thousand or 
more years ago. 

In the machine age glass has come into its own in the technical 
field. Glass is used for scientific equipment. The Palomar lens, the 
greatest piece of glass-casting ever achieved, has been made by the 
Coming Glass Works and, having gone through several years of 
cooling, grinding and polishing, is on the last lap of its slow journey 
to the Mount Palomar Observatory in California; when it is at last 
installed, a dozen years after its first pouring, stars and planets never 
before seen by man wall be observed with the help of this giant eye. 

We have structural parts of modem architecture incorporating 
glass blocks to allow the maximum of light, a development advan- 
tageous in educational buildings as well as in dwelHngs. Glass has 
been spun into yarn and used as insulation, or woven into fireproof, 
waterproof, stainless material used in theatres and other public 
buildings. Heat-proof glass is used for everything from cooking 
utensils to wire casings. The electric light bulb and all its develop- 
ments, such as radio tubes and fluorescent lighting, are made from 
glass, as is the ordinary but very vital thermometer. Progress is 



being made in the manufacture of optical glass, a most important 
tool of modern science. Modern packaging of foods, liquids and 
medicines is for the most part of glass. For the rigid standards of 
purity of materials and efficiency in their handling which are de- 
manded by modern science and industry, glass is no less suited than 
it was to the needs of personal adornment in ancient Egypt. Its very 
adaptability has led to many of the developments given it by mod- 
ern ingenuity, and the expansion of its field of service still seems to 
us miHmited. 

The exhibition is arranged in two sections. The introductory 
section is devoted to the technique of glass manufacture and to the 
technical and scientific applications of glass products. The raw 
materials from which glass is made are displayed together with the 
tools of the glass-blower. Various types of decorative and utilitarian 
glass are shown, accompanied by brief explanations of their char- 
acteristics and method of manufacture. A mmiber of examples of 
the use of glass in modem science, industry and daily hving com- 
plete this division. 

The second and larger section of the exhibition displays glass 
as a medium of artistic expression. The fourteen cases in this area 
are arranged by country, and the objects in the cases are numbered 
in accordance with the Catalogue that appears on pages 12-14. 

The display will be reinforced through morning and evening 
showings of American, British and French documentary films treat- 
ing with various phases of glass manufactm-e. On Tuesday evenings 
at eight o'clock and on Wednesday mornings at eleven o'clock the 
British film. Looking through Glass, and the French film, Un Grand 
Verrier, will be shown; and on Thursday evenings and Friday morn- 
ings the American film, Blowpipes, and Un Grand Verrier will be 
projected. This schedule will continue throughout the run of the 
exhibition. 

9 



The Museum's exhibition, as a summary of the new varieties of 
work done in our own day, will perhaps present to the visitor a few 
things that are unfamiliar and many that are known through long 
experience. It may be hoped, however, that in showing the almost 
unlimited range of the uses to which glass may be put, and in as- 
sembling certain objects of recent manufacture which are con- 
spicuously successful solutions of artistic and technical problems, 
the Museum is performing a service that will be of value to con- 
sumer, designer and manufacturer alike. 

Alleine Dodge 



Selected References in the Libraries of the Cooper Union 
Relating to Modern Glass 



GENERAL 

RoGEHS, Frances. 5000 years of glass. New 
York, Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1937. xvi, 
303 p., front., illus., plates. 

Steuben Glass, Inc. Books on glass, a 
checklist of 183 selected titles. New York, 
Steuben Glass, Inc., 1946. 3 p.l., 27 p. 

DECORATIVE GLASS 

Amemcan Federation of Arts. Catalogue; 
international exhibition; contemporary glass 
and rugs. American Federation of Arts, 
1929-30. [98] p., plates. 

Baltimore. Museum of Art. Handbook of 
glass. Baltimore, 1944. 28 p., iUus. (incl. 
maps ) . 

Felice, Carlo A. Arte decorativa, 1930. 
Milan, Ceschina, 1930. 71 p., plates. 

Janneau, GuiLiAUME. Modem glass. Lon- 
don, The Studio, Ltd., 1931. vii, 184 p., 
incl. plates. 

New York. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
A special exhibition of glass from the mu- 
seum collections. New York [1936] 45 p., 
col. front., illus. 

Paris. Exposition intemationale des arts 

decoratifs et industriels modemes, 1925. 

Rapport general. Section artistique et 

technique. Paris, Librairie Larousse, 1927. 

Vol. v. Accessoires du mobilier. Classe 

12. Art et Industrie du verre. 

10 



Rackham, Bernard. A key to pottery and 
glass. New York Chemical Pub. Co., Inc., 
1941. xii, 180 p., illus., plates. 

Skelley, Leloise Davis. Modem fine glass. 
New York, R. R. Smidi, 1937. 144 p., incl. 
front., illus., plates. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South 
Kensington. Glass, a handbook . . . and 
a guide to the museum collection. London, 
Pub. under the authority of the Ministry 
of Education, 1946. xii, 169 p., plates. 

American 

Steuben Glass, Inc. The collection of de- 
signs in glass by twenty-seven contempo- 
rary artists. New York, Steuben Glass, Inc. 
[1940] 27 p., plates. 

Steuben Glass, Inc. Modem glass. New 
York, Steuben Glass, Inc. [1939?] 21 p., 
illus. 

Steuben Glass, Inc. Steuben glass. [New 
York, 1947] 45 p., illus. 

English 

Decorative Art . . . the Studio year book. 

London, The Studio, Ltd., 1925-42. 18 v. 
Honey, William Bowter. English glass. 

London, Collins, 1946. 48 p., illus., col. 

plates. 

French 
QuENiotrx, Gaston. Les arts decoratifs 



modemes. France. Paris, Larousse [1925 J 
519 p., illus. (incl. plans, facsims.). 

German 

Passarce, Walter. Deutsche Werkkunst 
der Gegenwart. Berlin, Rembrandt- Verlag 
[1937] 222 p., illus. 

Norwegian 

KiELLAND, Thor. Om GuUsmedkunst i hun- 
dre Aar. J. Tostrup, 1832-1932. Oslo, 
Grondhal & Sons, 1932. 306 p., illus., 
plates, ports. 

Spanish 

Hispanic Society of America. Modem glass 
from Valencia and Cataluna. New York 
[1930] 1 folded leaf, Ulus. 

Swedish 

GoTEBORG. Rohsska Konstslojdmuseet. Vaar 

bostad, Gbteborg, 1937-41. 3 v. 
Kosta Glasbruk 1742-1942. [Stockholm, 

Lagerstrom, 1942] 231 p., iUus., ports., 

facsims. 
LuNDBEBG, Bengt. Hur et hem inredes. Stock- 
holm, n.d. 199 p., illus. 
Orrefors bruks a.-b., Orhefors. Orrefors 

glass works. Paris, 1937. 4 p., plates. 
Paris. Exposition Internationale des arts 

decoratifs et industries modemes, 1925. 

Suede. Guide illustre. [Stockholm, 1925] 

149 p., incl. plates. 
Wettergren, Erik. Modeme Schwedische 

Werkkunst. Lund, Walter [1926] 206 p., 

illus. (part col.), col. plates. 

Stained Glass 

CoNNiCK, Charles J. Adventures in Ught 
and color. New York, Random House 
[1937] 428 p., illus., plates (part col.). 
A twentieth-century workshop, p. 245-66. 

ViTRAUx modernes. [Paris] C. Moreau 
[1937?] 4 p.L, 48 plates. 

TECHNICAL 
Glass Construction 

Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. 

Coming-Steuben architectural glass . . . 

Coming [193-?] 1 v., illus. 
Eberlein, Harold Donaldson. Glass in 

modem constmction; its place in architec- 



tural design and decoration. New York, 
C. Scribner's Sons, 1937. 29 [3] p., illus., 
62 pi. 

KoRN, Arthur. Glas im Bau und als Geb- 
rauchsgegenstand. Berlin-Charlottenburg, 
E. Pollak [1929] 254 p. incl. illus., plates. 

McGrath, Raymond. Glass in architecture 
and decoration. London, The Architectural 
Press, 1937. xi, 664 p., incl. illus., plates, 
diagrs. 

Glass Manufacture 

Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Company. 52 
designs to modernize Main Street with 
glass. Toledo, O., Libbey-Owens-Ford 
Glass Co. [1935] 74 [2] p., incl. illus. 
(part col.) tables. 

Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. 
Corning glass works presents . . . [glass] 
fibre products. Coming, N. Y. [1937?] 
[18] p., illus. 

Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y. A 
short story of technical glassware. Com- 
ing, N. Y., 1938. 28 p., illus. 

FowLE, Arthur E. Flat glass. Toledo, O., 
Libbey-Owens Sheet Glass Co. [1924] 71 
p., col. front., illus., col. plates. 

Frary, Francis Cowles. Laboratory glass 
blowing. New York, McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., Inc., 1928. x, 116 p., incl. front., iUus. 

Marson, Percival. Glass and glass manu- 
facture. London, Sir. I. Pitman & Sons, 
Ltd. [1932] ix, 143 p., front., illus. 

Monro, William L. Window glass in the 
making; an art, a craft, a business. Pitts- 
burgh, American Window Glass Co., 1926. 
3 p.L, 9-105 p., illus., diagr. 

Phillips, Charles John. Glass: the miracle 
maker, its history, technology and applica- 
tions. New York, Chicago, Pitman Pub. 
Corp. [1941] xii, 424 p., incl. front., illus., 
tables, diagrs. 

Waugh, Sidney. The art of glass making. 
New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1937. [64] 
p., iUus. 

Waugh, Sidney. The making of fine glass. 
New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1947. 95 
p., illus., plates. 

Wright, Robert Hamilton. Manual of 
laboratory glass-blowing. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Chemical Pub. Co., Inc., 1943. ix, 90 p., 
incl. plates. 

Richard E. Morse 



11 



CATALOGUE OF THE ART SECTION 



AUSTRIA 

1. Decanter and Highball Glass, 1947; 
Hand-blown, cut; Designer, Adolf Loos 

2. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown, engraved; Ena 
Rottenberg 

3. Decanter, about 1940; Hand-blown; 
Josef Hoffmann 

4. Bowl, about 1929; Moulded; Marianne 
Rath 

5. Pitcher, about 1928; Hand-blown; Josef 
Hoffmann 

6. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown, engraved; Old 
Tyrolean design 

7. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown, cut; Stefan 
Rath 

8. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown, cut, engraved; 
Prof. Powolny 

9-13. Stemware, 1928-1947; Hand-blown; 
Josef Hoffmann 

1-13, Manufactured by }. and L. Lob- 
meyr, Vienna, in their factory at Kan- 
enicky Senov, Czechoslovakia 

FINLAND 

14. Green Vase, 1947; Hand-blown; Goran 
Hongell 

15. Green Vase, 1947; Hand-blovm; Goran 
Hongell 

H-15, Manufactured by the Karhula 
Company, Karhula 

16. Amber Vase, 20th century; Hand- 
blown; Alvar Aalto 

Manufactured at Arek 

SWEDEN 

17. Beaker, 20th century; Hand-blown, cut 

18. Smoke Pitcher, 1947; Hand-blown 
Manufactured by The Eda Glass Works, 
Vdrmtand 

19. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown, engraved 
Nils Kjellander 

20. Sherbet Glass (Toronto Pattern), 1947 
Hand-blown 

21. Highball Glass ( Toronto Pattern ) , 1947 
Hand-blown 

19-21, Manufactured by The Trelleborg 
Glass Works 

22. Vase, 20th century; Hand-blown "Graal" 
glass; Edvard Hald 

23. "St. Francis" Vase, 20th century; Hand- 
blovvm, engraved; Viktor Lindstrand 

24. "Pearl Diver" Vase, about 1935; Hand- 
blown, engraved; Viktor Lindstrand 

25. Bowl with Dish, 20th century; Hand- 
blown, engraved, Simon Gate 

12 



26. Vase, 20th century; Hand-blown "Ariel" 
glass; Edvin Ohrstrom 

27. Decanter: "Susanna and tlie Elders," 
about 1924; Engraved; Edvard Hald 

28. Rectangular vase, 1934; Cut incavo; 
Viktor Lindstrand 

29. Vase, about 1935; Hand-blown, cut; 
Simon Gate 

30. "Serenade" Vase, 20th century; Hand- 
blown, engraved; Edvard Hald 
22-30, Manufactured by Orrefors Bruks 
A.-B., Orrefors 

31. Decanter, 1937; Hand-blown; Elis Bergh 

32. Vase, 1938; Cut, engraved; Elis Bergh 

33. Goblet (Tyreso Pattern), about 1940: 
Hand-blown; Elis Bergh 

34. Goblet (Bemadotte Pattern), 1934 
Hand-blown; Ehs Bergh 

35. Smoke Decanter, 1938; Hand-blown 
Ehs Bergh 

36. Highball Glass (Ardene Pattern), 1938 
Hand-blown; Royal A. Hickman 

37. Goblet (Khngspor Pattern), 1938 
Hand-blown; Ehs Bergh 

38. Vase, 1942; Hand-blown, colored be- 
tween two layers of glass; Elis Bergh 

39. Vase, 1939; Hand-blown, cut; Ehs 
Bergh 

40. Vase, 1937; Cut, engraved; EMs Bergh 

41. Vase, 1946; Hand-blown "cased" glass, 
cut; Ehs Bergh 

42. Vase, 1942; Hand-blovra; EUs Bergh 
31-^2, Manufactured by Kosta Glas- 
bruk, Kosta 

UNITED STATES 

43. Crescent Salad Plate, 1947; Hand- 
pressed hme glass 

44. Ice Dish, 1947; Hand-pressed lime glass 

45. Three Liners for Ice Dish; Hand-pressed 
lead glass 

43-45, Manufactured by Fostoria Glass 
Company, Moundsville, West Virginia 

46. Square Vase, 1947; Hand-blovra into 
mould 

-47. Pair of Candlesticks, 1947; Hand-blown 
into mould 

48. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown into mould 

49. Bear, 1947; Hand-blown into mould 
46-49, Manufactured by Viking Glass 
Company, New Martinsville, West Vir- 
ginia 

50. Oval Bowl, 1947; Hand-blovra 

51. Seafood Cocktail Glass, 1932; Hand- 
blown; Arthur J. Bennett 



50-51, Manufactured by Cambridge 
Glass Company, Cambridge, Ohio 

52. Candy Jar ("Tiffin" Glass), 1947; 
Hand-blown; C. W. Carlson 

53. Decanter ("Tiffin" Glass), 1943; Hand- 
blown; C. W. Carlson 

52-53, Manufactured by United States 
Glass Company, Tiffin, Ohio 

54. Two Square Plates, 1937; Hand-pressed; 
Royal A. Hickman 

55. Goblet and Sherbet Glass, 1937; Hand- 
blown; Royal A. Hickman 

56. Old Fashioned Glass, 1947; Hand- 
blown; Horace King 

57. Highball Glass, 1947; Hand-blown; 
Horace King 

58. Ice Tub, 1947; Hand-blown; Horace 
King 

54-5S, Manufactured by A. H. Heisey 
and Company, Newark, Ohio 

59. Tumbler, 1947; Machine-blown; F. S. 
Barbiers 

60. Sherbet Glass, 1947; Machine-blown; 
F. S. Barbiers 

' 61. Footed Cocktail Glass, 1947; Machine- 
blown; F. S. Barbiers 
59-61, Manufactured by Anchor Hock- 
ing Glass Corporation, Lancaster, Ohio 

62. Amethyst Plate, 1945; Hand-blown; 
Carl and Stephen Erickson 

63. Old Fashioned Glass and Pestle, 1947; 
Hand-blown; Carl and Stephen Erick- 
son 

64. Bowl, 1945; Hand-blown; Carl and 
Stephen Erickson 

62-64, Manufactured by Erickson Glass 
Works, Ohio 

65. Cream Pitcher, 1945; Hand-blown 

66. Candy Dish, 1943; Hand-blown 

67. Ashtray, 1938; Hand-blown 

68. Two Dolphins, 1940; Hand-blown 

69. Perfume Bottle, 1939; Hand-blown 

70. Cruet, 1947; Hand-blown 

71. Bowl, 1937; Hand-blown 

72. Bowl, 1942; Hand-blown 

73. Highball Glass, 1944; Hand-blown 

74. Old Fashioned Glass, 1947; Hand- 
blown 

75. Cocktail Glass, 1947; Hand-blown 

76. Three-piece Set: "The Sea, The Forest 
and The Desert," 1947; Hand-blown, 
engraved; Designed by Sidney Waugh, 
engraved by Joseph Libisch 

65-76, Designed by the Design Depart- 
ment of Steuben Glass, New York, and 
manufactured by Steuben Division, 
Corning Glass Works, Corning, New 
York 

77. Glass Plate, 1947; Painted under glass; 
Marianna von Allesch 

78. Glass Plate, 1947; Painted under glass; 
Marianna von Allesch 

79. Glass Plaque for a Table Top, 1946; 



Painted under glass; Marianna von 
AUesch 

80. Color Figures of an Armadillo, a Wom- 
an and a Tree, about 1939; Marianna 
von Allesch 

77-80, Designed and Manufactured by 
Marianna von Allesch, New York 

81. Vase, 1942; Hand-blown; Marianna von 
AUesch 

Manufactured by Gundersen Glass 
Works, for Kensington, Inc., New Kens- 
ington, Pennsylvania 

82. Vase, about 1932; Hand-blown 

83. Vase, about 1932; Hand-blown 
82-83, Manufactured by Imperial Glass 
Corporation, Bellaire, Ohio 

84. Glass Table, 1947; Plate Glass 
Manufactured by H. H. Turchin Com- 
pany, New York 

85. "Moth-wing" Bowl, 1939; Hand-blown; 
Maurice Heaton 

Manufactured by Maurice Heaton, West 
Nyack, New York 

86. Pitcher and Two Glasses, 1947; Hand- 
hlovm 

Manufactured for Frederik Lunning, 
Inc., New York 

87. Glass Coffee Table, 1947; Plate Glass 
and Birch; Isamu Noguchi 
Manufactured by Herman Miller Fur- 
niture Company, New York 

88. Highball Glass, 1947; Hand-blown 

89. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown 

90. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown, cut 

91. Decanter, 1947; Hand-blown 

92. Ashtray, 1947; Hand-blovm 

88-92, Designed and Manufactured by 
Libbey Glass, Division of the Owens- 
Illinois Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio 

93. Green Compote, 1947; Hand-blowTi 

94. Pair of Candlesticks, 1947; Hand-blown 

95. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown 

93-95, Manufactured by Blenko Glass 
Company, Milton, West Virginia 

96. Plate, 1942; Bent Glass 
Manufactured by A. L. Hirsch and 
Company, Inc., New York 

97. Wine Glass, 1938; Hand-blown 

98. Goblet, 1938; Hand-blown 
Manufactured by Seneca Glass Com- 
pany, Morgantown, West Virginia 

NETHERLANDS 

99. Melon-shaped Vase, 20th century; 
Hand-blown "Unica" glass; A. D. Copier 

100. Bowl, 1947; Hand-blown, A. D. Copier 

101. Decanter and Glass, 1947; Hand-blovm; 
A. D. Copier 

102. Vase, 1947; Hand-blown "Unica" Glass; 
A. D. Copier 

103. Bowl, 20th century; Hand-blown 

104. Two Glasses, 20th century; Hand- 
blown 

13 



9 9-10 i. Manufactured by N. U. Glas- 
fabriek, Leerdam 

GERMANY 

105. Small Bowl, 20th century; Frosted 122 
crystal 

106. Vase, 20th century; Cut and frosted; 
Wilhelm von Eiff 
105-106, Manufactured at Stuttgart 



BELGIUM 

107. Decanter and Glass, 1947; Hand-blown 

108. Vase (Formose Pattern), 1947; Cased 
glass, cut 

109. Pair of Candlesticks, 1947; Hand-blown 
107-109, Manufactured by Val St. 
Lambert Glass Company 

110. Centrepiece, "Louis XIV," 1947; Etched 
and sand-blasted; Paula Ingrand 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

111. Vase; Hand-blowTi, cut; Pitt Petri 

112. Bowl; Hand-blown into mould, cut 

113. Vase; Hand-blown 

FRANCE 

114. Vase, 20th century; Moulded, frosted; 
Rene Lalique 

Manufactured by Rene Lalique et Cie, 
after design by Rene Lalique 

115. Vase, 20th century; Moulded opalescent 
glass 

Designed and executed by Rene Lalique 

116. Vase, 20th century; Hand-blown 
Designed and executed by Henri Na- 
varre 

117. Vase, 20th century; Hand-blown 
Designed and executed by Maurice 
Marinot 

118. Vase, 20th century; Hand-blown 
Designed and executed by Maurice 
Marinot 

119. Vase, 20th century; Hand-blown 
Designed and executed by Henri Na- 
varre 

120. Vase, 20th century; Moulded and etched 
Designed and executed by Daum Broth- 
ers Glass Works, Nancy 



121. Decanter and Glass (Michelangelo Pat- 
tern); Hand-blown, etched 
Manufactured by Compagnie des Cris- 
talleries de Baccarat 
Bowl, 20th century; Hand-blown, 
etched 

Designed and manufactured by Frangois 
Decorchemont 

123. Bowl, 20th century; Hand-blown, 
etched 

Designed and manufactured by Frangois 
Decorchemont 

124. Vase, 20th century; Hand-blown 
Designed and executed by Andre 
Thuret 

MEXICO 

125. Decanter and Glass; Hand-blown 

126. Pitcher; Hand-blown 

127. Martini Mixer and Glasses; Hand-blown 
125-127, Manufactured by Avalos Bros., 
Guadalajara arid Mexico City 

ITALY 

128. Dish, 20th century; Hand-blown 
Manufactured by Venezia-Murano Co., 
Murano 

129. Ashtray; Hand-blown 
Manufactured by S. A. Venini, Murano 

130. Fish ("Salmoni"); Hand-blovra; Prof. 
Scarpa-Croce 

Executed by Alfredo Barbini for Vamsa, 
Murano 

ENGLAND 

131. Compote; Hand-blown 

132. Bowl; Hand-blovioi, cut 

133. Decanter and glasses ( Tamara Pattern ) ; 
Hand-blown, engraved, cut 
131-133, Designed and manufactured 
by Stuart and Sons, Ltd., Stourbridge 

134. Goblet; Hand-blown 
Manufactured by Thomas Webb and 
Sons, Stourbridge 

135. Vase; Hand-blown 
Manufactured by T. Webb and Cor- 
bett, Stourbridge 



14 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 



The Museum gratefully acknowledges the generosity of the following 
lenders, whose valued loans are described in detail either in the Catalogue 
of the Art Section, printed elsewhere in this leaflet, or on the labels of the 
Technical Section: 

Amersil Company, Inc. ( Technical Section ) 

Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation (59-61) 

Bausch and Lome Optical Company (Technical Section) 

Blefeld and Company (Technical Section) 

Blenko Glass Company 

(Through the courtesy of Rubel and Company; 93-95) 

Cambridge Glass Company (50, 51) 

The Cooper Union 

[department of chemical engineering ( Technical Section ) ] 

[department of electrical engineering (Technical Section)] 

D. Stanley Corcoran, Inc. (31-42) 

Corning Glass Works (Technical Section) 

Duncan and Miller Glass Company (Technical Section) 

Enkight-LeCarboulec, Inc. (18-21) 

William H. Fenton and Company (62-64) 

Finland Ceramics and Glass Corporation (14-15) 

Fisher, Bruce and Company (22-24, 26, 27) 

FosTORiA Glass Company (43-45) 

Mrs. Harry St. Clair Hathaway (29) 

Maurice Heaton (Technical Section) 

A. H. Heisey and Company (54-58) 

A. L. HmscH and Company, Inc. (96) 

Imperial Glass Corporation (82, 83) 

Georg Jensen, Inc. (86, 110) 

Kensington, Inc. ( 81 ) 

A. N. Khouri and Brother ( 114, 121 ) 

Kimble Glass 

dfvision of owens-illinois glass company ( Technical Section ) 

Fred Leighton, Inc. (125-127) 

15 



LiBBEY Glass, division of owens-illinois glass company ( 88-92 ) 

LiBBEY-OwENS FoRD Glass Company (Technical Section) 

Mrs. Charles J. Liebman (106, 119, 123) 

Frederik Lunning ( 17 ) 

Meakin and Ridgway, Inc. ( 135 ) 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art (4, 28, 128; Technical Section) 

Herman Miller Furniture Company (87) 

The Museum of Modern Art (104; Technical Section) 

[gift of artek-pascoe ( 16 )] 

[gift of eimer and amend ( Technical Section ) ] 

[gift of PHILIP JOHNSON ( 103 ) ] 
[gift of EDGAR KAUFMANN, JR. ( 129 ) ] 

Ovington, Inc. ( 134 ) 

Owens-Illinois Glass Company ( Technical Section ) 

Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation (Technical Section) 

Pitt Petri ( 111 ) 

Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company ( Technical Section ) 

Miss Edith Sachs (118) 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs (120-122) 

Dr. Peter Schlumbohm (Technical Section) 

Seneca Glass Company 

(Through the courtesy of B. C. Sammis and Company; 97-98) 

The Springfield Museum of Fine Arts (25, 30, 99, 105, 115-117, 124) 

Steuben Glass ( 65-76; Technical Section ) 

H. H. TuRCHtN Company (84) 

United States Glass Company (52, 53) 

Val St. Lambert Glass Company, Inc. (107-109) 

Vamsa, Inc. ( 130; Technical Section ) 

A. J. van Dugteren and Sons, Inc. ( 1-3, 6-11, 100-102) 

Viking Glass Company (46-49) 

Marianna von Allesch (77-80) 

Weil Ceramics and Glass Company (112-113) 

J. Harold Wells (Technical Section) 3**^79% 
The Worcester Royal Porcelain Company, Inc. (131-133) 



16 



|S?r'?i^'i),'J,',^?I'™TION LIBRARIES 



3 9088 00715 3919